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Diptera.info :: Miscellaneous :: General queries
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Synanthropic flies: HELP!
Nuno Martins
#1 Print Post
Posted on 12-12-2007 17:31
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Location: Lisbon, Portugal
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Greetings!

I am conducting a research project on synanthropic flies and their capability to transport pathogens.
Although there is considerable literature of particular species and genera about their synanthropy, i am still a bit far from getting a rough list of all Cyclorraphan synanthropes (don't want to miss any).

So far I have:
Phoridae (Megaselia scalaris)
Drosophilidae (D. melanogaster & D. funebris)
Sepsidae (in general)
Chloropidae (Siphunculina sp.)
Sphaeoceridae (in general)
Anthomyidae (Anthomyia sp.)
Calliphoridae (Calliphora sp., Chrysomyia sp., Lucilia sp.)
Sarcophagidae (in general)
Faniidae (F. canicularis & F. scalaris)
Muscidae (M. domestica, M. sorbens & M. autumnalis; Muscina stabulans, Stomoxys sp., Atherigona orientalis)

The focus is on feces-visiting flies.

I am currently going through Greenberg's "Flies and Disease" and Smith's "Insects and other arthropods of medical importance", so it's gonna take a while Pfft I would really apreciate suggestions Smile

Also, I am inclined to include Bufolucilia and Phaenicia, but I'm not sure about their habits (some species have been changing genera from one of these to another and Lucilia, I think).

Bear in mind that I'm relatively new to entomology Wink
If you can find time to contribute, I would be very grateful.
 
Kahis
#2 Print Post
Posted on 12-12-2007 18:26
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"don't want to miss any" is a tall order. There are quite a few, depending on how you define synanthropic Smile Some species are synanthropes is part of their distribution range, which makes the question even more complicated. Others, like the sepsid Themira putris, are equally at home in made-made piles of refuse and in rotting heaps of seaweed.

Heleomyzidae is a family which should probably be on your list.
Kahis
 
www.iki.fi/kahanpaa
crex
#3 Print Post
Posted on 12-12-2007 18:44
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What does synanthropic and pathogen mean? Is it flies that infect humans with diseases?
 
Kahis
#4 Print Post
Posted on 12-12-2007 18:51
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crex wrote:
What does synanthropic and pathogen mean? Is it flies that infect humans with diseases?



syn + anthropic = "together with man" = found mostly in human settlements
pathogen = a disease-causing, usually microscopic lifeform: a bacterium, virus, amoeba,...
Kahis
 
www.iki.fi/kahanpaa
crex
#5 Print Post
Posted on 12-12-2007 19:07
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Thanks Kahis. Then Nuno might find something useful in this database, AFPMB-LRS.
 
Nuno Martins
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Posted on 12-12-2007 22:36
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sorry for not being clearer Pfft the post was already getting quite long
and yes, "don't want to miss any" was more of an expression, I'm just aiming for completeness in what species to include.

Those that I marked as "in general" means I will treat all the flies in those families as synanthropic.

My goal is to detect intestinal parasites that can infect humans, wich can be found in infected feces. Flies that land on these feces can become covered in parasites and/or swallow them with the feces. Rule out the maggots: gut reorganization during metamorphosis purges the parasites, so a newly emerged fly is "clean" (for the time being).

Kahis is right: synanthropic can be somewhat of a loose term. I'm looking for those that are synanthropic by behavior and/or abundancy in human habitats, not just by chance of distribution. I'm also interested in the symbovines (associated with cows), such as Stomoxys, because where's cattle, there is people.

There is a "Danger Index" of fly synanthropy/contact with infected substrates published in 1967 by F. Mih?lyi, and I'm trying to get my hands on that Smile but don't know if it will help me that much Frown

Every fly that is hemisynanthropic or true synanthrope, and that lands on fecal matter or sewage interests me Grin if you have the time, off the top of your head, please send your suggestions Smile

Thank you very much for your help!

PS: thanks for the site crex, good old scanned articles in there! Just what I needed! Grin
PS2: why do I have to make such long posts?? Pfft
 
Nuno Martins
#7 Print Post
Posted on 12-12-2007 22:48
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I'm sorry, forgot to mention: only Old World Diptera, specifically Western Europe.

PS: a short post Grin
 
John Bratton
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Posted on 13-12-2007 17:07
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What about Dryomyzidae, particularly N. anilis? And I get hundreds of Psychodidae on the manure I put on the garden. I haven't caught any diseases off them yet though.
 
Nuno Martins
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Posted on 13-12-2007 19:58
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Thanks for the contribution!Grin

The study is only focused on Cyclorraphan Diptera (flies), so Psychodidae are not to be included (but maybe should! Phlebotomes can pass on leishmaniasis, but that one is already covered in the lab downstairs Pfft)

I've finished dissecting Greenberg's "Flies and Disease"Grin.
N. anilis was referenced there, but mostly as a coprophagous forest hemisynanthrope. Due to economical and time pressure, I think I'm gonna have to leave it out (too many samples to analyze Frown).

So now I have:

Phoridae (Megaselia scalaris)
Drosophilidae (D. melanogaster & D. funebris)
Sepsidae (in general)
Chloropidae (Siphunculina sp.)
Sphaeoceridae (in general)
Otitidae (Physiphora sp.)
Scatophagidae(in general) (why haven't I put them here before??)
Anthomyidae (Anthomyia sp., Hylemya sp.)
Calliphoridae (Calliphora sp., Chrysomyia sp., Lucilia sp., Protophormia terranovae)
Sarcophagidae (in general)
Faniidae (F. canicularis, F. scalaris & F. leucosticta)
Muscidae (M. domestica, M. sorbens & M. autumnalis; Muscina stabulans, Stomoxys sp., Atherigona orientalis, Ophyra sp., Dasyphora sp., Hydrotaea sp., Haematobia sp.)

Keep contributions coming, if you can Smile
(hope no one catches diseases from the flies!)
 
Kahis
#10 Print Post
Posted on 13-12-2007 20:12
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There are in fact very few Scatophagidae that are coprophilous. Scathophaga is the only genus, and even within it most species are not coprophages. S. stercoraria, the scathophagid everyone knows, is a exception, not a typical scathiphagid.

Heleomyzidae (and sphaeroceridae) are the most numerous coprophiles in the outhouse at our summer cottage. But they are proabably not significant disease transmitters since the adults seldom interact with humans.
Kahis
 
www.iki.fi/kahanpaa
Laurens van der Leij
#11 Print Post
Posted on 13-12-2007 21:47
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Location: Den Bosch - Netherlands
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I don't know if you consider Tabanidae to be synanthropic, but they are certainly transmitting some diseases to men (Chvala, Lyneborg, Moucha, 1972 page 50-52)
http://vliegfiets...gspot.com/
 
http://vliegfietsen.blogspot.com/
Nuno Martins
#12 Print Post
Posted on 13-12-2007 22:13
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Thanks Kahis, I was being too generalist regarding the Scatophaga. Didn't know that S. stercoraria was kind of a deviant. The species mentioned in the literature is, as you said, S. stercoraria wich is hemisynanthropic I think, but given their common name "Dung flies" I believed their behaviour to be similar. Won't make that same mistake again!Pfft

(trivia: Scatophagidae is also a family of fishes Frown)

And yes, not every coprophage fly is synanthropic. Haven't encountered any Heleomyzidae in the literature yet... But keep them coming! Smile I'm aiming for those in urban, rural and cattle areas. If I spread too much, I'll have to separate my collections in tons of samples Pfft

I haven't found any reference to Tabanidae as of yet... but yes, like Phlebotomes, I believe they can easily be disease vectors.
(correction: I think Phlebotominae and Psychodidae are actually separate families, but don't really know at this point)

Will look into it (only gone through Greenberg's as of yet Pfft)

Thanks!Grin
 
Nuno Martins
#13 Print Post
Posted on 13-12-2007 22:17
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Location: Lisbon, Portugal
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sorry, Phlebotomidae. -inae is not family sufix Pfft
 
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