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More Information about: square brackets
Term square brackets
Explanation 1. When used in citations square brackets indicate uncertainty. Most commonly it will be the year that is given between square brackets. In this case the date of description is uncertain and the date between the brackets is the earliest, verifiable date. For example: Anomoia purmunda (Harris, [1780]) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The name waspublished in a series of piblications of which the first was issues in 1776 and the last one was dated 1780. The name proposed was in an undated volume, but this volume was published in 1780 at the latest.
2. When used in citations in lists of synonyms, square brackets are often used to enclose statements of clarification or misidentification. For example: Acletoxenus Frauenfeld, 1868: 152. Type species: Acletoxenus syrphoides Frauenfeld, 1868 [= Gitona formosa Loew, 1864], mon. Von Frauenfeld (1868) described the genus Acletoxenus which has Acletoxenus syrphoides as type species. However, that species had already been described under the name Gitona formosa by Loew (1864).

Category Taxonomy
Submitted by Robert Nash
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24 May 2024 17:54


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Last updated: 25.08.2011
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07.03.24 00:01
Some flies preserved in ethanol and then pinned often get the eyes sunken, how can this be avoided? Best answer: I usually keep alcohol-collected material in alcohol

17.08.23 15:23

17.08.23 13:54
Tony, I HAD a blank in the file name. Sorry!

17.08.23 13:44
Tony, thanks! I tried it (see "Cylindromyia" Wink but don't see the image in the post.

17.08.23 11:37
pjt - just send the post and attached image. Do not preview thread, as this will lose the link to the image,

16.08.23 08:37
Tried to attach an image to a forum post. jpg, 32kB, 72dpi, no blanks, ... File name is correctly displayed, but when I click "Preview Thread" it just vanishes. Help!

23.02.23 21:29
Has anyone used the Leica DM500, any comments.

27.12.22 21:10
Thanks, Jan Willem! Much appreciated. Grin

19.12.22 11:33
Thanks Paul for your work on keeping this forum available! Just made a donation via PayPal.

09.10.22 17:07
Yes, dipterologists from far abroad, please buy your copy at veldshop. Stamps will be expensive, but he, the book is unreasonably cheap Smile

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